Publications

Books
Articles
Conferences
Copyrights
  • Book Chapters

    (1) Halic, T., Ahn, W., De, S., “Designing 3D interactive applications on the web”, chapter in OpenGL Insights, A K Peters Ltd/CRC Press, to be published in 2012.

    (2) Matthes, K., Sankaranarayanan, Ahn, Woojin, De, S., “Simulation of Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES)”, chapter in NOTES-Textbook and Video Atlas, in A. Kalloo, J. Marescaux and R. Zorron ed., 2011.

    (3) Zamiri, A., and De, S., “Mechanics of 3D crystallized protein structures”, Chapter in Advances in Soft Matter Mechanics, Shaofan Li and Bohua Sun ed., 2011.

    (4) De, S., and Rahul, “Recent Advances in Global-Local Multiscale Methods for Computational Mechanics”, in B.H.V. Topping, J.M. Adam, F.J. Pallarés, R. Bru, M.L. Romero, (Editors), “Developments and Applications in Computational Structures Technology”, Saxe-Coburg Publications, Stirlingshire, UK, Chapter 2, pp. 25-47, 2010.

    (5) De, S. and Lim, Y.J., “Interactive surgical simulation using a meshfree computational method”, Chapter in Computational Methods in Biomechanics, S. De, M.R.K. Mofrad and F. Guilak ed., Springer, 2010.

    (6) De, S. and Maciel, A., “The science of virtual environments”, Chapter in Simulation in Surgery, Daniel B. Jones and Shawn Tsuda ed., 2009.

    (7) Lin, H. and De, S., “A virtual basic laparoscopic skill trainer (VBLaST)”, Chapter in Simulation in Surgery,Daniel B. Jones and Shawn Tsuda ed., 2009.

    (8) “Modeling of particulate composites with singularities”, Chapter in Advances in Meshless Methods, A. Ferreira, E. Kansa, V. Leitao, G. Fasshaur ed., Springer, 2009.

    (9) S. BaniHani and S. De, “Genetic algorithms for meshfree numerical integration”, Chapter in Meshfree Methods for Partial Differential Equations III (Lecture Notes in Computational Science and Engineering), M. Griebel and M.A. Schweitzer ed., Springer, 2006.

    (10) J.F. Hiller, S. De and K.J. Bathe, “On the state-of-the-art of finite element procedures and a meshless technique”, Chapter in Computational Mechanics for the Twenty-First Century, BHV Topping ed, 2001.

  • Journal Articles (51 published, 1 in press, 9 submitted)

    (1) Peng, Q., De, S., “Mechanical properties of hexagonal boron nitride monolayers”, submitted to Physical Review B, 2011.

    (2) Sreekanth, A.V., De, S., “Towards virtual FLS: Development and initial face validation of a peg transfer simulator”, submitted to International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery.

    (3) Resapu, R., Sankaranarayanan, G., Jones, D. B., Schwaitzberg, S., De, S., “Safe practices and common uses of energy in minimally invasive surgery”, Surgical Endoscopy, submitted 2011.

    (4) Ghosh, R. and De, S., “A meso scale analysis of ballistic penetration of orthogonal 3D woven fiber composites”, submitted to Journal of Solids and Structures, 2011.

    (5) Zhonghua, L., Arikatla, V.S., Chen, D. and De, S., “A dual mesh algorithm for real-time simulation of electrocautery procedures in minimally invasive surgery”, Presence, submitted in 2011.

    (6) Arikatla, V.S., De, S. “A fast modified multilevel solver for problems involving time dependent Dirichlet boundary conditions”, Graphical Modeling, submitted in 2011.

    (7) Arikatla, V.S., De, S. “A multilevel algorithm for interactive cutting of deformable objects in virtual environments”, Visual Computer, submitted in 2011.

    (8) Zamiri, A. and De, S., “Thermomechanics and physics of crystalline materials at high rate of loading: Formulation and integration algorithm”, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, submitted in 2011.

    (9) Deo, D. and De, S., “Interactive simulation of nonlinear deformable bodies with force
    feedback using higher order polynomial reproducing radial basis
    function neural networks”, Journal of Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, submitted in 2011.

    (10) Deo, D. and De, S., “A physics-driven neural networks-based simulation system (PhyNNeSS) for multimodal interactive virtual environments involving nonlinear deformable objects”, Presence (in press), submitted in 2009, revisions submitted in 2010, accepted in 2010.

    (11) Zamiri, A. and De, S., “Multiscale modeling of the anisotropic shock response of -HMX molecular polycrystals”, special issue of Interactions and Multiscale Mechanics,: An International Journal, 4(2), 2011.

    (12) Sankaranarayanan, G., Adair, J., Halic, T., Gromski, M., Lu, Z., Ahn, W., Jones, D. and De, S., “Validation of a novel laparoscopic adjustable gastric band simulator”, Surgical Endoscopy, 25(4), 1012-1018, 2011.

    (13) Krishna, S. and De, S., “A temperature and rate-dependent micromechanical model of Molybdenum under neutron irradiation”, Mechanics of Materials, 43, 99-110, 2011.

    (14) Rahul, De, S., “An efficient block preconditioner for Jacobian-free global-local multiscale methods”, International journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 87(7), 639-663, 2011.

    (15) Maciel, A., Sankaranarayanan, G., and De, S., “Surgical model-view-controller simulation framework for local and collaborative applications”, International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery, 6(4), 457-471, 2011.

    (16) Zamiri, A., and De, S., “Modeling the anisotropic deformation response of -HMX molecular crystals”, Propellants, Explosives and Pyrotechnics, 36(3), 247-251, 2011.

    (17) Zamiri, A., and De, S., “Mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite single crystals from nanoindentation data”, Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 4(2), 146-152, 2011. [among top 10 "hottest articles" of the year]

    (18) Halic, T., Sankaranarayanan, and De, S., “GPU-based efficient and realistic techniques for bleeding and smoke generation in surgical simulators”, International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery, 6(4), 431-443, 2010.

    (19) Eom, J., Shi, C., Xu, X. G., and De, S., “Predictive modeling of lung motion over the entire breathing cycle using measured pressure-volume data, 4D CT images, and finite element analysis”, Medical Physics (in press), submitted in 2009, accepted in 2010.

    (20) Deo, D. and De, S., “A physics-driven neural networks-based simulation system (PhyNNeSS) for multimodal interactive virtual environments involving nonlinear deformable objects”, Presence (in press), submitted in 2009, revisions submitted in 2010, accepted in 2010.

    (21) Krishna, S., Zamiri, A. and De, S., “Dislocation and defect density-based micromechanical modeling of the mechanical behavior of FCC metals under neutron irradiation”, Philosophical Magazine, 90 (30), 4013-4025, 2010.

    (22) Adair, J., Gromski, M., Sankaranarayanan, G., De, S., and Jones, D., “Simulation in laparoscopic bariatric surgery”, Bariatric Times, 7(6), 10-12, 2010.

    (23) Zamiri, A., and De, S., “Modeling the mechanical response of tetragonal lysozyme crystals”, Langmuir, 26(6), 4251-4257, 2010.

    (24) Lin, H., Sankaranarayanan, G., Arikatla V.S., Mulcare, M., Zhang, L., De, S., Cao C.G.L., Schneider, B., Derevianko, A., Lim, R., Schwaitsberg, S., and Jones, D.B., “Preliminary face and construct validation study of a virtual basic laparoscopic skill trainer”, Journal of Laparoendoscopic and Advanced Surgical Techniques, 20(2), 153-157, 2010.

    (25) Zamiri, A., and De, S., “Deformation distribution maps of b-HMX molecular crystals”, Physics D: Applied Physics, 43(3), 35404-35410, 2010.

    (26) Conde, J., De, S., Hall, R., Johansen, E., Meglan, D., and Peng, G., “Telehealth innovations in health education and training”, Telemedicine and E-Health, 16(1), 2010.

    (27) Rahul, De, S., “An efficient coarse-grained parallel algorithm for matrix-free global-local multiscale computations on massively parallel systems”, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 82(3), 379-402, 2009.

    (28) Maciel, A., Halic, T., Nedel, N.P. and De, S., “Using PhysX for virtual surgery with force feedback”, International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery, 5(3), 341-353, 2009.

    (29) Lim, Y.J., Deo, D., Singh, T.P., Jones, D.B., De, S., “In situ measurement and modeling of biomechanical response of human cadaveric soft tissues for use in physics-based laparoscopic surgical simulation”, Surgical Endoscopy, 23(6), 1298-1307, 2009.

    (30) De, S. and Johnson, C., “Special issue Preface: Computational Bioengineering”, Engineering with Computers, 25(1), 1-2, 2009.

    (31) Banihani, S. and De, S., “A comparison of some model order reduction methods for fast simulation of soft tissue response using the point collocation-based method of finite spheres (PCMFS)” , Engineering with Computers, 25(1), 37-47, 2009.

    (32) Kim, J., Ahn, B., De, S. and Srinivasan, M.A., “An efficient soft tissue characterization algorithm from in vivo indentation experiments for medical simulations”, International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery, 4, 277-285, 2008.

    (33) Maciel, A. and De, S., “An efficient dynamic point algorithm for line-based collision detection in real time virtual environments involving haptics”, Computer Animation and Virtual Worlds, 19, 151-163, 2008.

    (34) Maciel, A., Liu, Y., Ahn, W., Singh, T.P., Dunnican, W. And De, S., “Development of the VBLaSTTM: A Virtual Basic Laparoscopic Skill Trainer”, International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery, 3, 131-138, 2008.

    (35) Banihani, S. and De, S., “Method of finite spheres solution of micron-scale plasticity based on strain gradient formulation”, Computers & Structures, 86(23), 2109-2122, 2008.

    (36) Macri, M. and De, S., “An octree partition of unity method (OctPUM) with enrichments for multiscale modeling of heterogeneous media”, Computers & Structures, 86(7-8), 780-795, 2008.

    (37) Kim, J., Choi, C., De, S. and Srinivasan, M.A., “Virtual surgery simulation for medical training using multi-resolution organ models”, International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery, 3(2), 149-158, 2007.

    (38) De, S., Guilak, F. and Mofrad, M.R.K., “Special issue preface: Computational Bioengineering”, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 196, 31-32, 2963-2964, 2007.

    (39) Macri, M. and De, S., “Enrichment of the method of finite spheres using geometry independent localized scalable bubbles”, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 69(1), 1-32, 2007.

    (40) Banihani, S., and De, S., “On the evaluation of the method of finite spheres for the solution of Reissner-Mindlin plate problems using the numerical inf-sup test”, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 70(11), 1366-1386, 2007.

    (41) Lim, Y.J. and De, S., “On Some Recent Advances in Multimodal Surgery Simulation: A Hybrid Approach to Surgical Cutting and the Use of Video Images for Enhanced Realism”, Presence, 16(6), 563-583, 2007. [Top 10 most downloaded articles. This article was also featured on the cover of the journal, Dec 2007 issue]

    (42) Lim, Y.J. and De, S., “Physically realistic virtual surgery: modeling nonlinear tissue response using a point-associated finite field (PAFF) approach”, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 196(31-32), 3011-3024, 2007.

    (43) Cysyk, J., De, S. and Srinivasan, M. A., “A finite element model of the human fingerpad for dynamic simulations”, submitted to Journal of Biomechanical Engineering in 2006.

    (44) Bjornsson, C.S., Oh, S.J., Al-Kofahi, Y.A., Lim, Y.J, Smith, K.L., Turner, J.N., De, S., Roysam, B., Shain, W.,Kim, S.J., “Effects of insertion conditions on tissue strain and vascular damage during neuroprosthetic device insertion”, Journal of Neural Engineering 3(3), 196-207, 2006.

    (45) Banihani, S. and De, S., “A computationally efficient technique for the solution of Timoshenko beam and Mindlin-Reissner plate problems using the method of finite spheres”, International Journal of Computational Methods 3(4), 465-501, 2006.

    (46) Banihani, S. and De, S., “Development of a genetic algorithm-based lookup table approach for efficient numerical integration in the method of finite spheres with application to the solution of beam and plate problems”, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 67(2), 1700-1729, 2006.

    (47) De, S., Lim, Y.-J. and Srinivasan, M.A., “Physically realistic virtual surgery using the point-associated finite field (PAFF) approach”, Presence, 15(3), 294-308, 2006.

    (48) Macri, M., Tichy, J. and De, S., “Some examples of the method of finite spheres with enrichment”, International Journal of Computational Methods, invited paper, 2(4), 517-541, 2005.

    (49) Aslam, A. and De, S., “A comparison of several numerical methods for the solution of the convection-diffusion equation using the method of finite spheres”, Computational Mechanics, 36(5), 398-407, 2005.

    (50) Idelsohn, S., De, S. and Orkisz, J., “Special Issue Preface: Meshfree Methods”, 83, 17-18, 1365, 2005.

    (51) De, S., Kim, J., Lim, Y.-J., and Srinivasan, M. A., “Point collocation-based method of finite spheres (PCMFS) for real time surgery simulation”, Computers & Structures 83(17-18), 1415-1425, 2005.

    (52) Macri, M., Tichy, J. and De, S., “On the application of the method of finite spheres to problems in tribology”, Revue Européenne des Eléments Finis, 14(2-3), 339-366, 2005.

    (53) Macri, M., and De, S., “Towards an automatic discretization scheme for the method of finite spheres and its coupling with the finite element method”, Computers & Structures, 83(17-18), 1429-1447, 2005.

    (54) Basdogan, C., De, S., Kim, J., Manivannan, M., Srinivasan, M. A., “The role of haptics in medical simulations”, IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 24 (2), 56-64, 2004 [59 citations]

    (55) De, S., Hong, J.W. and Bathe, K. J., “On the method of finite spheres in applications: towards the use with ADINA and a surgical simulator”, Computational Mechanics, 31, 27-37, 2003.

    (56) De, S., “Efficient computation of drag forces on micro-machined devices using a boundary integral equation-based solver”, International Journal for Multiscale Computational Engineering, 1(2&3), 277-288, 2003.

    (57) Macri, M., De, S. and Shephard, M.S., “Hierarchical tree-based discretization in the method of finite spheres”, Computers & Structures, 81, 789-803, 2003

    (58) De, S. and Bathe, K. J., “Displacement/ pressure mixed interpolation in the method of finite spheres”, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 51, 275-292, 2001

    (59) De, S. and Bathe, K. J., “Towards an efficient meshless computational technique: the method of finite spheres”, Engineering Computations, 18, 170-192, 2001. [29 citations]

    (60) De, S. and Bathe, K. J., “The method of finite spheres with improved numerical integration”, Computers & Structures, 79 (22-25), 2183-2196, 2001. [51 citations]

    (61) De, S. and Bathe, K. J., “The method of finite spheres”, Computational Mechanics, 25, 329-345, 2000. [108 citations]

  • Publications in Peer-Reviewed Conference Proceedings

    (1) Dargar, S., Sankaranarayanan, S., De, S., “Use of a linear motion stroke potentiometer as a high precision sensor for linear translation in a laparoscopic ligating loop simulation”, Medicine Meets Virtual Reality, Long Beach, CA, 2012.

    (2) Dargar, S., Sankaranarayanan, S., De, S., “ToolTrackTM: A Compact, Low Cost System for Measuring Surgical Tool Motion”, Medicine Meets Virtual Reality, Long Beach, CA, 2012.

    (3) Sankaranarayanan, S., Arikatla, SV, De, S., “A Simulation Framework for Tool Tissue Interactions in Robotic Surgery”, Medicine Meets Virtual Reality, Long Beach, CA, 2012. [BEST POSTER AWARD]

    (4) Herzog, A., Chung, P., De, S.,” Model Order Reduction of Neural Connectivity for Computationally Feasible Whole Brain Modeling, Medicine Meets Virtual Reality, Long Beach, CA, 2012.

    (5) Nemani, A., Sankaranarayanan, S., De, S., ” Automated Real Time Peg and Tool Detection for the FLS Trainer Box”, Medicine Meets Virtual Reality, Long Beach, CA, 2012.

    (6) Halic, T., Sankaranarayanan, S., De, S., ” A Resource Management Tool for Real-time Multimodal Surgical Simulation”, Medicine Meets Virtual Reality, Long Beach, CA, 2012.

    (7) Halic, T., Ahn, W., De, S., ” A Framework for Web Browser-Based Medical Simulation Using WebGL”, Medicine Meets Virtual Reality, Long Beach, CA, 2012.

    (8) Ahn, W., Halic, T., Kudsi, Y., Sankaranarayanan, S., Jones, DB., Schwaitzberg, S., De, S., ” A Virtual Electrosurgery Simulator for Teaching and Training in Safe Usage of Energy”, Proceedings of the Society for American Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgeons, 2012.

    (9) Feldman, L., Fuchshuber, P., Jones, DB., Schwaitzberg, S. for the FUSE (Fundamental Use of Surgical Energy) Task Force, Proceedings of the Society for American Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgeons, 2012.

    (10) Matthes, K., Sankaranarayanan, S.,Nemani, A., Ahn, W., Kato, M., Jones, DB., Schwaitzberg, S., De, S., ” Development of a Virtual Reality NOTES Simulator”, Proceedings of the Society for American Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgeons, 2012.

    (11) De, S., Zamiri, A., “Modeling of nanoporous protein crystals”, First Thematic Conference on Multiscale Modeling and Validation in Medicine and Biology: Biomechanics and Mechanobiology, San Francisco, CA, 2012.

    (12) T. Halic, W. Ahn, S. De, “A Framework for 3D Interactive Applications on the Web”, SIGGRAPH Asia, Hong Kong, China, Dec 11-15, 2011

    (13) Sankaranarayanan, S., Zhonghua, L, De, V., A Fixed Point Proximity Method for Extended Contact Manipulation of Deformable Bodies, Medicine Meets Virtual Reality, Long Beach, CA, 2011.

    (14) Arikatla, S., Sankaranarayanan, G., De, S., “Cost-Efficient Suturing Simulation with Pre-Computed Models”, Medicine Meets Virtual Reality, Long Beach, CA, 2011.

    (15) Zhonghua, L., Arikatla, V., Cheng, D., De, S., “Real-Time Electrocautery Simulation for Laparoscopic Surgical Environments”, Medicine Meets Virtual Reality, Long Beach, CA, 2011.

    (16) Halic, T., De, S., “SML: SoFMIS Meta Language for Surgical Simulation”, Medicine Meets Virtual Reality, Long Beach, CA, 2011.

    (17) Halic, T., Arikatla, V., Sankaranarayanan, G., Zhonghua, L., Ahn, W., De, S., “A Software Framework for Multimodal Interactive Simulations (SoFMIS)”, Medicine Meets Virtual Reality, Long Beach, CA, 2011.

    (18) Sankaranarayanan, G., Zhonghua, L., Dargar, S., Jones, D.B., De, S., “A Tool Interface with Force Feedback for the Virtual Basic Laparoscopic Skills Trainer (VBLaST)”, Proceedings of the Society for American Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgeons, 2011.

    (19) Zamiri, A., De, S., “Computational modeling of polycrystalline materials under very high rates of loading”, Proceedings of the US National Congress on Computational Mechanics, Minneapolis, MN, 2011.

    (20) Peng, Q., De, S., “An Accelerated Quasicontinuum-DFT (QCDFT) Method and its Application to Radiation Damage Modeling”, Proceedings of the US National Congress on Computational Mechanics, Minneapolis, MN, 2011.

    (21) Rahul, De, S., “A Block Preconditioned Jacobian-Free Global-Local Multiscale Method”, Proceedings of the US National Congress on Computational Mechanics, Minneapolis, MN, 2011.

    (22) Ghosh, R., De, S., “Micromechanics Based Progressive Damage Modeling of 3D Woven Composites under Ballistic Impact”, Proceedings of the US National Congress on Computational Mechanics, Minneapolis, MN, 2011.

    (23) Arikatla, S., De, S., “A Modified Multilevel Solver for Problems with Dynamic Dirichlet Boundary Conditions”, Proceedings of the US National Congress on Computational Mechanics, Minneapolis, MN, 2011.

    (24) Ghosh, R. and De, S., “Micromechanis-based progressive damage modeling of 3D woven fiber composites under ballistic impact”, 6th MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics, Boston, MA, 2011.

    (25) Eom, J., De, S., “Patient specific characterization of tumor-bearing lung tissue elasticity using 4D CT image data for radiation therapy”, 6th MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics, Boston, MA, 2011.

    (26) Arikatla, S., Halic, T., De, S. “Feature detection and Matching using Non-linear Scale-Space”, Proceedings of the US National Congress on Computational Mechanics, Minneapolis, MN, 2011.

    (27) Ghosh, R., De, S., “Progressive Damage Modeling of 3D Woven Fiber Composites under Ballistic Loading”, SAMPE 2011.

    (28) Zamiri, A., De, S., “Multiscale modeling of protein crystals”, ECCOMAS Thematic Conference: Coupled Problems, 2011.

    (29) Zamiri, A, and De, S., “Multiscale modeling of the molecular polycrystals in very high rates of loading”, International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2010.

    (30) Krishna, S. and De, S., “A self-consistent multiscale method for modeling the irradiation damage of FCC and BCC metals, International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2010.

    (31) Zamiri, A., and De, S., “Micromechanistic modeling of 3D assembled protein materials”, Proceedings of the World Congress in Biomechanics, Singapore, 2010.

    (32) Ghosh, R., Gama, B. and De, S., “Micromechanics based damage modeling of 3D woven fiber composites”, SAMPE 2010.

    (33) Zamiri, A. and De, S., “Multiscale modeling of protein crystals; application to tetragonal lysozyme”, First Global Conference on NanoEngineering for Medicine and Biology, Houston, TX, 2010.

    (34) Eom, J., Shi, C., Xu, G.X. and De, S., “in vivo characterization of lung tissue properties from 4D T images for cancer radiation therapy”, Proceedings of the World Congress in Biomechanics, Singapore, 2010.

    (35) De, S., “Some advances in physics-based surgery simulation using a meshfree approach”, International Workshops in Advances in Computational Mechanics, Yokohama, Japan, 2010.

    (36) Eom, J., and De, S., “A point collocation-based residual free bubble method”, Fourth European Conference on Computational Mechanics, Paris, France, 2010.

    (37) De, S., and Rahul, “Recent advances in global-local multiscale methods for computational Mechanics”, 10th International Conference on Engineering Computational Technology (ECT2010) 2010, Valencia, Spain.

    (38) De, S., and Rahul, “A block preconditioning strategy for Jacobian-free global-local multiscale methods”, 9th World Congress on Computational mechanics (WCCM2010) 2010, Sydney, Australia.

    (39) Eom, J., Shi, C., Xu, G.X. and De, S., “Dynamic respiratory simulation for lung cancer treatment based on patient specific 4D CT and nonlinear finite element method”, Proceedings of the International Congress and Exhibition on Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery, Geneva, Switzerland, 2010.

    (40) Zamiri, A., and De, S., “Multiscale modeling of the molecular polycrystals at very high rate of loadings”, ASME IMECE2010, Vancouver, Canada, 2010

    (41) Rahul and De, S., “A block preconditioned Jacobian-free multiscale method”, 1st International Conference on Advances in Interaction and Multiscale Mechanics (AIMM’10) 2010, Jeju Island, Korea.

    (42) Zamiri, A., and De, S., “Modeling the effect of microstructure on anisotropic shock response of polycrystalline HMX”, Gordon Research Conference on Energetic Materials, Tilton, NH, June 13-18, 2010.

    (43) Zamiri, A., and De, S., “Thermomechanical modeling of polycrystalline energetic materials using a multiscale approach,” 14th International Detonation Symposium, Idaho, April 11-16, 2010.

    (44) Zamiri, A., and De, S., “Effect of the microstructure and crystal orientation on the shock response of β-HMX polycrystals”, 14th International Detonation Symposium, Idaho, April 11-16, 2010.

    (45) Arikatla, S. A. and De, S., “A two-grid iterative approach for real time haptics mediated interactive simulation of deformable objects”, Proceedings of the Haptics Symposium, 2010.

    (46) Lu, Z., Sankaranarayanan, G., Deo, D., Chen, D., De, S., “Towards Physics-based interactive simulation of electrocautery procedures using PhysX”, Proceedings of the Haptics Symposium, 2010.

    (47) Deo, D. and De, S., “A higher order polynomial reproducing radial basis function neural network (HOPR-RBFN) for real-time interactive simulations of nonlinear deformable bodies with haptic feedback”, Proceedings of the Haptics Symposium, 2010.

    (48) Halic, T. and De, S., “Lightweight bleeding and smoke effects for surgical simulators”, Proceedings of the IEEE Virtual Reality Conference, 2010.

    (49) Deo, D. and De, S., “A machine learning-based scalable approach for real time soft tissue simulation”, Medicine Meets Virtual Reality:17, 2009.

    (50) Deo, D., Singh, T.P., Dunnican, W., and De, S., “Development of a glove-based wearable system for objective assessment of laparoscopic skills and some observations for a peg transfer task”, Medicine Meets Virtual Reality:17, 2009.

    (51) Sankaranarayanana, G., Deo, D., and, De, S., “Hybrid network architecture for interactive multi-user surgical simulator with scalable deformable models”, Medicine Meets Virtual Reality:17, 2009.[Best poster award]

    (52) Banhani, S., Dutkin, M., Ali, S., Sreekanth, A.V., Sankaranarayanan, G., and De, S., “Plug-and-play tool handles for laparoscopic surgery simulators”, Medicine Meets Virtual Reality:17, 2009.

    (53) Deo, D., and De, S., “Characterization of anisotropy in viscoelastic properties of intra-abdominal soft tissues”, Medicine Meets Virtual Reality:17, 2009.

    (54) Sankaranarayanan, G., and De, S., “Real time knot detection for suturing simulation”, Medicine Meets Virtual Reality:17, 2009.

    (55) Sankaranarayanan, G., Sreekanth, A.V., Lin, H., Jones, D.B., and De, S., “Face validation of the virtual basic laparoscopic skill trainer (VBLaST©)” Medicine Meets Virtual Reality:17, 2009.

    (56) Deo, D., and De, S., “PhyNeSS: A physics-driven neural networks-based surgery simulation system with force feedback”, World Haptics Conference, 2009.

    (57) Zamiri, A., and De, S., “Modeling the anisotropic plasticity of HMX molecular crystals for particulate composite energetic materials”, 2009 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Lake Buena Vista, Florida, 2009.

    (58) Lin, H., Sankaranarayanan, G., Sreekanth, A.V., Mulcare, M., Zhang, L., De, S., Cao, C., Schneider, B., Derevianko, A., Lim, R., Fobert, D., Schwaitzberg, S., Jones, D.G., ” Advances towards virtual reality fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery(FLS)”, Proceedings of the Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgeons, 2009.

    (59) Shi, C, Eom, J, Vines, D, and De, S, and Xu G.X., “Physics-based patient-specific respiration modeling for 4D treatment planning”, ASTRO ’09 1-5 November, 2009, Chicago

    (60) Eom J, Shi C, Xu, G.X., and De, S., “Modeling respiratory motion for cancer radiation therapy based on patient-specific 4DCT data”, MICCAI ’09; 20-24 September, 2009, Imperial College London, UK (Acceptance rate is 27%)

    (61) Eom, J., De, S., Xu, X.G, Shi C., and Vines, D., “Physics-based respiration modeling for radiation treatment using patient-specific PV curve” AAPM 2009 51th Annual meeting; July 26~30, 2009, Anaheim, CA.

    (62) Guo B, He W, Eom J, De S, Xu ., X.G., and Shi, C., “4D predictive patient-specific anatomical model based on 4D CT data: a feasibility study,” AAPM 2009 51th Annual meeting, July 26-30, 2009, Anaheim, CA.

    (63) Deo, D, and De, S., “PhyNeSS: A Physics-driven Neural Networks-based Surgery Simulation System with Force Feedback”, 24th International Congress and Exhibition on Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery, Berlin, Germany, 2009.

    (64) Eom, J., Shi, C., Xu, X.G. and De, S., “Development of a patient-specific nonlinear finite element model model for the Simulation of lung motion during cancer radiation therapy”, Proceedings of the ASME 2009 Summer Bioengineering Conference (SBC2009) June 17-21, Resort at Squaw Creek, Lake Tahoe, CA, USA.

    (65) Eom, J., Xu, X.G. and De, S., “Modeling of lung motion for cancer radiation therapy”, Proceedings of the US National Congress on Computational Mechanics, Columbus, OH, 2009.

    (66) Zamiri, A., and De, S., “Modeling the anisotropic plasticity of HMX molecular srystals for particulate composite energetic materials”, Proceedings of the US National Congress on Computational Mechanics, Columbus, OH, 2009.

    (67) Arikatla, S.A., and De, S., “Multiresolution modeling for haptics mediated interactive simulations”, Proceedings of the US National Congress on Computational Mechanics, Columbus, OH, 2009.

    (68) Rahul, and De, S., “Efficient implementation of hierarchical multiscale methods on massively parallel systems”, Proceedings of the US National Congress on Computational Mechanics, Columbus, OH, 2009.

    (69) Zamiri, A., and De, S., “Computational micromechanics of protein crystals”, Proceedings of the US National Congress on Computational Mechanics, Columbus, OH, 2009.

    (70) Zamiri, A., and De, S., “Modeling the anisotropic plastic deformation of hydroxyapatite single crystals based on nanoindentation data”, 3rd International Conference on Mechanics of Biomaterials and Tissues, Clearwater Beach, Fl, 2009.

    (71) Liu, Y., Jiao, S., Wu, W. and De, S., “GPU accelerated fast FEM deformation simulation”, Proceedings of the IEEE Asia Pacific Conference on Circuits and Systems, 2008.

    (72) De, S., Ahn, W., Lee, D.Y. and Jones, D.B., “Novel virtual Lap-band® simulator could promote patient safety”, Medicine Meets Virtual Reality:16, 2008.

    (73) Maciel, A. and De, S., “An efficient Dynamic Point© algorithm for line-based collision detection in real time virtual environments involving haptics”, Medicine Meets Virtual Reality:16, 2008.

    (74) Maciel, A. and De, S., “Physics-based real time laparoscopic electrosurgery simulation”, Medicine Meets Virtual Reality:16, 2008.

    (75) Liu, Y. and De, S., “CUDA-based real time surgical simulation”, Medicine Meets Virtual Reality: 16, 2008.

    (76) Maciel, A., Liu, Y., Ahn, W., Singh, T.P., Dunnican, W. and De, S., “Towards a virtual basic laparoscopic skill trainer”, Medicine Meets Virtual Reality:16, 2008.

    (77) Maciel, A. and De, S., “A new line-based algorithm for real time haptic interactions with virtual environments”, Proceedings of the IEEE Virtual Reality Conference, 2008.

    (78) Deo, D., Sankaranarayanan, G., and De,S., “Joint motion and force analysis for objective assessment of laparoscopic skills”, Proceedings of the Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgeons, 2008.

    (79) Ahn, W., Jones, D.B., Lee, D.Y. and De, S., “Modeling of the Lap-band® for laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding operation”, Proceedings of the IEEE Virtual Reality Conference, 2008.

    (80) Lim, Y.J., Deo, D. and De, S., “In situ measurement and modeling of human cadaveric soft tissue mechanical properties for use in real time surgical simulation”, Proceedings of the ASME 2008 Summer Bioengineering Conference (SBC2008), 2008.

    (81) Macri, M. and De, S., “An enrichment-based multiscale partition of unity method”, Proceedings of the Computational Structures Technology Conference, Athens, Greece, 2008.

    (82) De, S., “Digital surgery using a meshfree method”, Proceedings of the 8th World Congress on Computational Mechanics (WCCM8), Venice, Italy, 2008

    (83) De, S. and BaniHani, S., “Reduced order modeling using the point collocation-based method of finite spheres”, Third Asia-Pacific Congress on Computational Mechanics, Kyoto, Japan, 2007.

    (84) Deo, D., De, S. and Singh, T.P., “Physics-based stereoscopic suturing simulation with force feedback and continuous multipoint interactions for training on the da Vinci ® surgical system”, Medicine Meets Virtual Reality:15, 2007.

    (85) Deo, D., De, S. and Kalyanaraman, S., “A scalable intermediate representation for remote interaction with soft tissues”, Medicine Meets Virtual Reality:15, 2007.

    (86) Dunnican, W.J., Jahraus, C., Kimball, R., Singh, T.P., Ata , A., De, S., “Stereoscopic versus traditional two-dimensional visualization for training modules”, Proceedings of the Society for American Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgeons 2007 Annual Meeting.

    (87) Macri, M. and De, S., “Multiscale modeling of heterogeneous media using meshfree enrichments”, International Conference on Computational Methods, Hiroshima, Japan, April 2007.

    (88) Banihani, S. and De, S., “Comparison of some MOR Methods for surgical simulation using PCMFS”, Proceedings of the US National Congress on Computational Mechanics, San Francisco, LA, 2007.

    (89) Banihani, S. and De, S., “Numerical inf-sup test of the method of finite spheres for the solution of plate problems”, Proceedings of the US National Congress on Computational Mechanics, San Francisco, LA, 2007.

    (90) Macri, M. and De, S., “A multiscale octree partition of unity method”, Proceedings of the US National Congress on Computational Mechanics, San Francisco, LA, 2007.

    (91) De, S. and Macri, M., “Multiscale modeling using meshfree enrichments”, ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Meshless Methods, Porto, Portugal, 2007.

    (92) Jin, W., Lim, Y.J, Singh, T.P. and De, S., “Use of surgical videos for realistic simulation of surgical procedures”, Medicine Meets Virtual Reality:14, 2006.

    (93) Lim, Y.J., Jones, D.B., Singh, T.P., and De, S., “Measurement of the mechanical response of intra-abdominal organs of fresh human cadavers for use in surgical simulation”, Medicine Meets Virtual Reality:14, 2006.

    (94) Schmitt, C., Rusak, Z. and De, S., “Numerical solution of advection and Burgers equations using the point collocation-based method of finite spheres (PCMFS)”, AIAA Meeting, San Francisco, 2006.

    (95) Lim, Y.J., Jones, D.B., Singh, T.P., and De, S., “In situ measurement of cadaveric soft tissue mechanical properties and fulcrum force measurement for use in physics-based surgical simulation”, Proceedings of IEEE VR2006 Conference,Washington DC, 2006.

    (96) Lim, Y., J., “Modeling of cadaveric soft tissue for use in physics-based surgical simulation”, 7th World Congress on Computational Mechanics, LA, 2006.

    (97) Macri, M., and De, S., “Multiscale modeling of materials with microstructure using the method of finite spheres with enrichments”, 7th World Congress on Computational Mechanics, LA, 2006.

    (98) Lim, Y.J., and De, S., “Using the point associated finite field (PAFF) for nonlinear real time surgery simulation”, Eurohaptics, Paris, France, 2006.

    (99) Macri, M. and De, S., “Modeling the bulk mechanical response of heterogeneous explosives based on microstructural information”, 13th International Detonation Symposium, Norfolk, VA, 2006

    (100) Lim, Y.J., and De, S., “A meshfree computational methodology for surgical simulation”, 5th World Congress of Biomechanics, Munich, Germany, 2006

    (101) Lim, Y.J. and De, S., “Real time techniques for nonlinear tissue deformation in surgical simulation”, 9th MICCAI Conference, Copenahgen, Denmark, 2006.

    (102) Banihani, S., and De, S., “The solution of functionally graded problems using the method of finite spheres and a genetic algorithm-based numerical integratio9n approach”, 7th World Congress on Computational Mechanics, LA, 2006.

    (103) Schmitt, C., Rusak, Z. and De, S., “Solution of hyperbolic equations using the point collocation-based method of finite spheres”, Proceedings of the American Physical Society, 2005.

    (104) Bjornsson,C.S., Oh, S.J., Al-Kohafi, Y., Lim, Y.J., Smith, K.L., Turner J.N., De, S., Kim, S.J., Roysam, B., Shain,W., “Cortical neural prostheses – controlling the biological interface”, 2005 Annual Fall Meeting of the Biomedical Engineering Society, October, 2005.

    (105) Bjornsson,C.S., Oh, S.J., Al-Kohafi, Y., Lim, Y.J., Smith, K.L., Turner J.N., De, S., Kim, S.J., Roysam, B., Shain,W., “Ex vivo assessment of tissue damage due to neuroprosthetic device insertion”, Annual Meeting of the Society of Neuroscience, November, 2005.

    (106) De, S., “On the development of a Fast-Fourier Transform (FFT)-accelerated Fast Stokes Solver for drag force computation on MEMS devices”, ASME 2005 International Design Engineering Technical Conference (5th International Conference on Multibody Systems, Nonlinear Dynamics, and Control Biomedical Engineering, Long Beach, CA, September, 2005.

    (107) Bjornsson, C.S., Smith, K.L., Oh, S.J., Al-Kofahi Y., Lim Y.J., Lin G., LeBlanc D, Turner J.N., De, S., Roysam, B., Kim, S.J., Shain, W, “Cortical neural prostheses insertion: removing the mystery”, Brain-Computer Interface Technology: Third International Meeting, June, 2005.

    (108) Macri, M., BaniHani, S., Aslam, A. and De, S., “Some recent advances in the method of finite spheres: practical implementation, stability analysis and application to multiscale modeling”, Third International Workshop on Meshfree Methods, Bonn, Germany, 2005.

    (109) Macri, M. and De, S., “Enrichment of the method of finite spheres with localized bubbles”, Proceedings of the US National Congress on Computational Mechanics, Austin, TX, 2005

    (110) Lim, Y.-J., and De, S., “Real time simulation of nonlinear soft tissue response in minimally invasive surgical procedures using a meshfree approach”, Proceedings of the US National Congress on Computational Mechanics, Austin, TX, 2005

    (111) Macri, M. and De, S., “Some examples of the method of finite spheres with enrichment”, ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Meshfree Methods, Lisbon, Portugal, 2005.

    (112) BaniHani, S., and De, S., “On the use of genetic algorithms for numerical integration of meshfree methods”, Proc. of the Third MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics, Cambridge, MA, 2005

    (113) De, S., Lim, Y-J. and Jones, D.B., “Importance of Haptics in minimally invasive surgical simulation and training”, Proceedings of the Society for American Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgeons 2005 Annual Meeting, 2005.

    (114) Lim, Y-J. and De, S., “Nonlinear Tissue Response Modeling for Physically Realistic Virtual Surgery using PAFF”, Proceedings of the World Haptics Conference, Pisa, Italy, 2005.

    (115) Lim, Y.-J, Jones, D.B. and De, S., “Improved virtual surgical cutting based on physical experiments”, Medicine Meets Virtual Reality:13, 2005.

    (116) Jin, W., Lim, Y-J., Xu, G., Singh, T.P. and De, S., “Improving the realism of virtual surgery”, Medicine Meets Virtual Reality:13, 2005.

    (117) Macri, M. and De, S., “A comparison of several techniques of coupling the method of finite spheres to the finite element method”, Proceedings of the 6th World Congress on Computational Mechanics, Beijing, China, September 5-10, 2004 keynote lecture, organizer and session chair.

    (118) De, S., “Some practical issues in the implementation of meshfree methods with reference to the method of finite spheres”, Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Computational Structures Technology, Lisbon, Portugal, 2004. keynote lecture, organizer and session chair

    (119) De, S. and Macri, M., “Automatic preprocessing in the method of finite spheres”, Proceedings of the ECCOMAS Conference, Jyvaskyla, Finland, July 24-28, 2004. session chair.

    (120) Lim, Y-J. and De, S., “Some advances in the use of meshfree methods and the implementation of surgical cutting in multimodal virtual environments”, Proceedings of IEEE VR2004 Conference, Chicago, 2004.

    (121) Lim, Y-J. and De, S., “Realistic simulation of surgical cutting of soft tissues in real time with force feedback”, Proceedings of Medicine Meets Virtual Reality:12, Newport Beach, 2004.

    (122) Macri, M., and De, S., “An automatic preprocessing environment for the method of finite spheres”, Proceedings of the US National Congress on Computational Mechanics, Albuquerque, NM, 2003.

    (123) De, S., “Physically-based real time surgical simulation”, Proc. of the US National Congress on Computational Mechanics, Albuquerque, NM, 2003.

    (124) Kim, J., De, S. and Srinivasan, M. A., “An Integral Equation Based Multiresolution Modeling Scheme for Multimodal Medical Simulations”, Proc. of the IEEE VR2003 Conference, Los Angeles, California, 2003

    (125) Kim, J., De, S. and Srinivasan, M. A., “Physically based hybrid approach in real time surgical simulation with force feedback”, Proc. of Medicine Meets Virtual Reality:11, 2003.

    (126) Macri, M., and De, S., “An octree based discretization for the method of finite spheres”, Proc. of the Second MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics, Cambridge, MA, 2003. keynote lecture, organizer and session chair

    (127) Kim, J., De, S. and Srinivasan, M. A., “A hybrid modeling scheme for tissue simulation in virtual reality based medical trainers”, Proc. of the Second MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics, Cambridge, MA, 2003.

    (128) De, S., Hong, J. W., and Bathe, K.J., “The method of finite spheres: A generalization of the finite element technique”, Advances in Structural Engineering and Mechanics, Busan, Korea, Aug, 2002.

    (129) De, S., Hong, J.W. and Bathe, K.J., “Further developments and some applications in the method of finite spheres”, Fifth World Congress on Computational Mechanics, Vienna, Austria, July, 2002, session chair.

    (130) De, S. and Bathe, K.J., “Analysis of incompressible media using the method of finite spheres and some improvements in efficiency”, Fourteenth U.S. National Congress on Theoretical and Computational Mechanics, Blacksburg, VA, June, 2002.

    (131) De, S., Wang, X. and White, J.K., “Efficiency improvements in Fast Stokes solvers”, Modeling and Simulation of Microsystems, San Juan, Puerto Rico, April, 2002.

    (132) Kim, J., De, S. and Srinivasan, M.A., “Computationally efficient techniques for real time surgical simulation with force feedback”, IEEE VR2002 Conference, Orlando, Florida, March, 2002

    (133) Tay, B., De, S. and Srinivasan, M. A., ” In vivo force response of intra-abdominal soft tissues for the simulation of laparoscopic procedures”, accepted for presentation to Medicine Meets Virtual Reality:10, Newport Beach, January, 2002

    (134) De, S, Kim, J., Manivannan, M., Srinivasan, M. A. and Rattner, D., “Multimodal simulation of Laparoscopic Heller myotomy using a meshless technique”, Medicine Meets Virtual Reality:10, Newport Beach, 2002.

    (135) De, S. and Bathe, K. J, “The method of finite spheres with improved numerical integration”, Sixth US National Congress on Computational Mechanics, Dearborn, MI, August, 2001

    (136) De, S. and Bathe, K. J., “The method of finite spheres: a summary of recent developments”, First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics, M.I.T, 2001 keynote lecture, organizer and session chair

    (137) De, S., Kim, J. and Srinivasan, M. A., “Virtual surgery simulation using a collocation-based method of finite spheres”, First MIT Conference on Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics, M.I.T, 2001.

    (138) De, S., Kim, J. and Srinivasan, M. A.,”A meshless numerical technique for physically based real time medical simulations”, Medicine Meets Virtual Reality:9, Newport Beach, 2001.

    (139) De, S. and Bathe, K. J., “The method of finite spheres: some advances in efficiency and incompressible analysis”, International Conference on Computational Engineering and Sciences, Los Angeles, Aug. 2000.

    (140) Bathe, K. J., Rugonyi, S. and De, S., “On the current state of the finite element methods – solids and structures with full coupling to fluid flows”. Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Edinburgh, Scotland, 1999.

    (141) De, S. and Srinivasan, M. A., “Thin walled models for haptic and graphical rendering of soft tissues in surgical simulations”, Medicine Meets Virtual Reality:7, San Franscisco, 1999

    (142) De, S. and Srinivasan, M. A., “Rapid rendering of tool-tissue interactions in surgical simulations: thin walled membrane models”, The Third PHANToM User’s Group Workshop, Deadham, Oct, 1998.

  • Copyrights, Patents and Licenses

    (1) VBLaST-PT©
    Abstract: Peg transfer (PT) is one of the tasks in FLS (Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery) for practicing transfer of six pegs from one post to another in a both hands using surgical tools. A virtual basic laparoscopic skill trainer (VBLaST©) has been developed to provide a tool for computerized objective assessment. VBLaST-PT© allows the user to practice the peg transfer procedure within a virtual environment. The user’s performance is recorded in real time and automatically evaluated in terms of completion time, and errors during cutting.(2) VBLaST-PC©
    Abstract: Pattern cutting (PC) is one of the tasks in FLS (Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery) for practicing cutting a gauze along a designated pattern (black circle) with laparoscopic grasper and scissor. A virtual basic laparoscopic skill trainer (VBLaST©) has been developed to provide a tool for computerized objective assessment. VBLaST-PC© allows the user to practice the pattern cutting procedure within a virtual environment. The user’s performance is recorded in real time and automatically evaluated in terms of completion time, and errors during cutting.(3) VBLaST-LL©
    Abstract: Ligating loop (LL) is one of the tasks in FLS (Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery) for practicing placement of an endoloop. A virtual basic laparoscopic skill trainer (VBLaST©) has been developed to provide a tool for computerized objective assessment. VBLaST-LL© allows the user to practice the ligating loop procedure within a virtual environment. The user’s performance is recorded in real time and automatically evaluated in terms of completion time, and errors during cutting.

    (4) VBLaST-SS©
    Abstract: Surgical Suturing (SS) is one of tasks in FLS (Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery) for practicing intracorporeal and extracorporeal suturing skills with laparoscopic graspers. A virtual basic laparoscopic skill trainer (VBLaST©) has been developed to provide a tool for computerized objective assessment. VBLaST-SS© allows surgical suturing (SS) to be performed within a virtual environment. Both intracorporeal and extracorporeal knot tying is possible. The novel computer software has been coupled with innovative hardware intefaces. Performance metrics are recorded in real time and automatically evaluated in terms of completion time, and errors during cutting.

    (5) V-Band©
    Abstract: This computer software is capable of generating a virtual environment for practicing the laparascopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) procedure on a computer based on the pars flaccida technique.

    (6) VEST©
    Abstract: The virtual electrosurgical skill trainer (VEST) has been developed to simulate electrosurgical skills using a computer. The computing efficiency of the method enables to run burning simulation in ubiquitous computing environments through web browsers, utilizing both CPU and GPU computational resources. The CPU side computations are used to solve the diffusion equation in real-time, while the pixel shader (GPU) renders the temperature.

    (7) SoFMIS©
    Author: Tansel Halic, Sreekanth A. Venkata, Ganesh Sankaranarayanan, Zhonghua Lu, Woojin Ahn, Suvranu De
    Abstract: The development of a multimodal interactive simulation is a very elaborate task due to the various complex software components involved, which run simultaneously at very high rates with maximum CPU load. We have developed software framework for multimodal interactive simulations (SoFMIS©) that can be used to rapidly create interactive simulations such as surgical simulations. The framework consists of modules with each of them have a specific tasks such as collision detection, physics based simulation, networking etc. Moreover, SoFMIS© has real-time profiler and memory management system that can used to maintain computational resources at optimal or predefined level in the simulation. SoFMIS© offers great flexibility and customization allowing simulation developers and researchers to concentrate on the simulation logic rather than component development

    (7) Π-SoFMIS©

    Abstract: Π-SoFMIS© is a platform independent software framework for multimodal interactive simulations which is based purely on the web browser. Rendering module based on WebGL deals with visualization of the scene, texture management, and specifying material properties and lighting effects. The simulation module is responsible for physics simulation such as deformation or collision detection. The hardware integration module handles the incorporation of the various hardware interfaces such as haptic device. Π-SoFMIS© can be applied to various platform independent applications that require 3D graphics technology on the web, i.e. visualization, computer animation, gaming, and medical simulation.

    (8) DynamicPoint©

    Abstract: This is a software that allows very efficient collision detection in interactive virtual environments using a line-based representation of the haptic cursor. The gold standard of haptic interactions with virtual objects is the point-based paradigm where the haptic cursor is treated as a point. This is inadequate when surgical tools interact with soft tissues. Treating the tool as a line object is important, but computationally highly demanding. The DynamicPoint© algorithm overcomes this problem. In this technique, the tool segment is represented by its end points and a “dynamic point”, which is chosen to be the closest point on the line to any potentially colliding triangle. The position of the dynamic point on the line is updated at haptic frequencies and hence to the user, due to inherent latencies of the order of 1 ms in the human haptic system, it is virtually indistinguishable from a line, just as static frames presented 30 times per second generates the illusion of motion in real time graphics. For convex objects, the algorithm does not slow down irrespective of how complex the simulation scenario may be.

    (9) PhyNNeSS©
    Abstract: Physics-based modeling of soft biological tissues, especially when the response is nonlinear, is the most challenging task in the development of real time simulation systems for minimally invasive surgical procedures. Since the solution of nonlinear problems must be iterative, severe limitations are imposed on how complex a scenario that can be rendered in real time. Dr. De has developed a physics-driven neural networks-based simulation system to overcome this long-standing technical challenge. The first step is an off-line pre-computation step, in which a finite element model of the organ is created and a database is generated by applying carefully prescribed displacements to each node. In the next step, the data in condensed into a set of coefficients describing neurons of a Radial Basis Function (RBF) network. During real-time computation, these neural networks are used to reconstruct the deformation fields as well as the reaction forces at the surgical tool tip. This technique is not only extremely rapid, but also scalable – which implies that there is a ‘control knob’ which can be turned up or down to control the accuracy of the solution with little effort.

    (10) PAFF©
    Abstract: Simulating complex surgical procedures is a highly demanding task which may involve cutting, tearing and burning of tissue. Most importantly, these simulations must be performed in real time. Real time graphics requires an update rate of thirty frames per second to generate the illusion of motion. However, for smooth haptic interactions a much higher update rate of a thousand times a second must be realized. Existing computational methods are not adequate as they can neither support severe interactions such as surgical cutting nor can they perform in real time. To overcome this challenge, Dr. De has developed a novel computational software known as PAFF© which is a general and powerful method for simulating the response of matter that is ideally suited to rapid computations. Matter is represented as a collection of particles or “nodes”. The particles possess finite (spherical) “influence zones”/ “fields” which overlap and pass through each other, much like clouds. The interlocking of these influence zones allows the particles to move in a coordinated fashion under elastic force fields (just as magnetic particles would move under the influence of each others magnetic fields). PAFF© allows at least three orders of magnitude speedups compared to traditional methods and is a key enabler of interactive computing.