From the category archives:

Medical Diagnosis

Diagnosis is the first step in medical care. Typically, a patient will consult a health care provider who will perform one or more diagnostic tests including measuring blood pressure, taking pulse, listening to heart beat or prescribe pathological and/or imaging. A hypothesis of possible cause of disease is developed based on these tests and a treatment plan is formulated. Diagnostic imaging including radiology, ultrasound, CT, MRI and X-ray is now widely used in clinical diagnosis. There is a significant role that MSI will play in further advancing and automating the diagnosis process. This will include fundamental advances in imaging technology as well as image analysis methods and elastographic techniques for noninvasive interrogation of tissue health, telemedicine and telediagnostic tools and technology and novel diagnostic methods.

Example Projects, Medical Diagnosis

The mechanical properties of soft tissue are related to the tissue structure, and thus the pathological state of the tissue.  The response of tissue to a dynamic excitation, for example waves propagating from a focused ultrasound pulse, is directly related to the mechanical properties.  This project seeks out ways to image mechanical properties of tissue for medical diagnosis (elastography) based on measured responses of the tissue to dynamic excitation.

The mechanical properties of soft tissue are related to the tissue structure, and thus the pathological state of the tissue.  The response of tissue to a dynamic excitation, for example waves propagating from a focused ultrasound pulse, is directly related to the mechanical properties.  This project seeks out ways to image mechanical properties of tissue for medical diagnosis (elastography) based on measured responses of the tissue to dynamic excitation.

This project combines machine learning and optimization methods to rapidly create clinically acceptable intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans for prostate, lung, and head and neck cancers.

We combine quantitative fluorescence whole-body preclinical imaging techniques with NIR FRET molecular probes to develop whole-tissue, in vivo three-dimensional imaging at the nanometer scale.  In vivo whole-body FRET imaging provides a new method for visualizing the overall tissue spatial distribution of protein-protein interactions and allows the direct visualization of the delivery of therapeutic drugs into tumor cells.

Nanoparticles have numerous uses in the medical field from drug delivery vectors to magnetic resonance imaging and hyperthermia for cancer treatment. Two examples where understanding heat transport in nanoparticle systems is critical are cancer hyperthermia and local control of biological processes via conjugated, remotely heated nanoparticles. In nanoparticle-based cancer hyperthermia,  AC electromagnetic fields in the radiofrequency (RF) range is used to heat up superparamagnetic nanoparticles loaded to cancerous tissue. We are investigating heat generation and dissipation in RF heated nanoparticle assemblies in order to understand the main parameters such as nanoparticle coating, concentration and cluster formation. In parallel, we are exploring the potential to actuate biological process at cellular level employing RF actuated magnetic particles.